Power of Entry (Sec 41, HPPA)
Power of Seizure (Sec 19 (1), HPPA)
Power of Destruction (Sec 19 (4), HPPA)
Power to make an order (Sec 13, HPPA)
The Ontario Food Premises Regulation 562 establishes minimum standards that must be followed in any premise in Ontario (not including private residences) where food is:
Public health inspectors enforce the Ontario Food Premises Regulation 562
The Food Premises Regulation addresses standards such as maintenance, equipment, food temperatures, washrooms, food handling and employee hygiene in food premises
More information: Ontario Food Premise Regulation 562
The Food Handler Certification By-law was passed by Niagara Regional Council in 2010 and requires the following:
PHIs inspect food premises to make sure food is safe to eat
PHIs enforce the Food Premises Regulation. PHIs are provincial offences officers and can issue orders, tickets and summons to court when necessary
PHIs educate food handlers on safe food handling practices
PHIs assist operators in the development of food safety policies
1. The Health Protection and Promotion Act and the regulations within it are:
2. The public health inspector must:
Foodborne illness, also called food poisoning, is an illness acquired from eating or drinking contaminated food or water.
The symptoms may occur anywhere from 30 minutes to 70 days (incubation period) after consuming the contaminated food or drink. This depends on:
Some populations that are at greater risk for foodborne illness include:
Types of foodborne illness include:
Potential sources of microorganisms include:
Cross-contamination is the transfer of pathogens, chemicals or unwanted items onto food that may make it unsafe to eat.
Bacteria multiply by dividing:
Bacteria need a combination of factors to grow:
These six factors influence the growth of pathogenic bacteria.
By sufficiently changing or eliminating one of the factors, bacterial growth and the risk of foodborne illness can be prevented.
Time and temperature are the easiest factors for food handlers to control.
Foods that are able to support the growth of pathogenic bacteria and the production of toxins are considered hazardous
However, any food can be the cause of food poisoning if it is not handled safely and becomes contaminated
Foods that are considered most hazardous are those with a high protein and available water (moisture) content. Examples of these foods are:
The most common microorganisms that cause food poisoning are bacteria.There are two types of bacterial food poisoning:
A bacterial infection occurs when the food eaten is contaminated with living pathogenic bacteria.
Bacteria will multiply in the digestive tract and most often cause diarrhea, stomach cramps and fever. The bacteria will pass through your stomach and down into your lower intestine. The bacteria will imbed themselves in the wall of the intestine and begin to multiply. When there are enough bacteria, diarrhea will result and may be bloody.
Symptoms may occur 12 hours to 10 days (longer in some cases) after eating the contaminated food depending on:
Examples of infectious bacteria are Salmonella, Campylobacter, E. coli and Shigella.
Pathogenic bacteria can be destroyed by cooking foods to the appropriate cooking temperature.
E. coli 0157:H7
A bacterial intoxication can happen when the food eaten is contaminated with toxins (poison) or toxin-producing bacteria.
When these bacteria multiply in the food or in the body, a toxin is produced. Not all toxins are destroyed by cooking, therefore it is important to keep foods out of the temperature danger zone.
Vomiting is the most common and first symptom of bacterial intoxication.
Examples of bacteria that produce toxins are Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Clostridium botulinum.
Clostridium Botulinum (foodborne toxin)
Viruses are microorganisms that multiply inside living cells and cause illness
Viruses do not multiply in food; they are simply passed to humans through food
Antibiotics do not work against viruses but some vaccines will help people build immunity against certain viruses
Examples of viruses that can be passed through food are Hepatitis A, and Norovirus
Foods can be contaminated by viruses through unwashed hands, unclean preparation areas, and unsafe water
Some viruses can survive on counter tops and food contact surfaces for a long period of time
Parasites are organisms that cause illness by living and feeding off a host organism.
Various symptoms are associated with parasitic diseases. Some of these symptoms include nausea and diarrhea, and other symptoms are more disease-specific such as ulcers, anemia, muscle pain and, in some cases, muscle damage.
Parasites are killed and inactivated by cooking the food product to the proper internal temperature.
Moulds are fungi that grow on a variety of vegetable and animal matter, especially under warm, moist conditions.
Moulds produce elaborate root networks.
Although most mould found on food products is more of a spoilage and quality issue, some moulds can produce toxins which can be harmful and cause illness.
Examples of toxins produced by certain mould species include:
Unless mold is a characteristic of the food, when food goes mouldy throw it out.
Chemical food poisoning can occur when chemicals are intentionally or unintentionally added to food.
Vomiting is a common symptom of chemical contamination and usually occurs within one hour of ingestion.
Ensure chemicals are properly stored below or away from any food products or food preparation areas.
Examples of chemicals that can cause chemical food poisoning:
Pesticides or pest poisons should be used appropriately and away from any food preparation areas.
Mislabelled chemical containers such as spray bottles or buckets have the potential to contaminate food if mishandled.
Cleaners and degreasers should be stored and handled away from any food items or food preparation areas.
Dickey's Barbecue, a restaurant in Salt Lake City, was involved in a case where their iced tea was accidentally poisoned.
Some plants and animals are naturally poisonous when consumed. This is why it's important to purchase foods from approved sources.
Some examples of poisonous plants and animals are:
An allergy is an overreaction of the immune system to unwanted substances.
Allergies can result in a wide range of symptoms. The most common are vomiting, diarrhea, nausea, throat itchiness, and swelling. Symptoms may also include tingling in the mouth, hives, tightness in the throat and chest, wheezing, shallow breathing, coughing/choking, dizziness and abdominal pain.
Common food allergens:
Anaphylactic shock or anaphylaxis is the severe form of an allergic reaction. It is a dramatic loss in blood pressure which leads to unconsciousness and can result in death within three to 15 minutes.
Keep an accurate list of all ingredients that are put into foods.
Keep ingredient lists from the packages of all pre-packaged food.
If you are not sure of the food's ingredients, tell the customer that you are not sure.
Be aware of potential cross-contamination of food when using utensils and equipment like cooking utensils, cutting utensils and baking pans.
Where possible on the menu, substitute with food that will be less likely to cause an allergic reaction, for example, substitute vegetable oil for peanut oil.
Call 911 if a customer is having a severe allergic reaction.
Some foods (lactose) and food additives (MSG, sulphites) can cause a food intolerance with similar symptoms as food allergies.
The difference is food intolerances do not affect the immune system.
Ask the customer what date and time he or she visited the restaurant and what foods were consumed.
Call the local public health unit and advise the customer to call the health unit.
Refrigerate, label and keep any leftover food portions from menu item. Inform staff not to use samples.
Review with the staff how the meal was prepared (using the HACCP system).
Ask staff if they were ill with similar symptoms.
Document all information
Protect food from being contaminated with anything that may cause illness, a choking hazard or other injury.
This includes items like:
1. Pathogenic microorganisms can cause illness
2. Food poisoning:
3. The following are types of micro-biological food poisonings
Most cases of food poisoning are caused by failing to keep hazardous foods at the right temperature. This includes hot and cold holding, cooling, reheating and cooking temperatures.
You cannot determine food temperature by colour, steam or by touch.
The only way to accurately measure food temperatures is by using a calibrated thermometer.
Clean and sanitize the thermometer after each use and before inserting it into the next food item.
Check the stem of the thermometer for an indentation or "dimple" that shows the end of the sensing device. The probe must be inserted the full length of the sensing area (usually 2 to 3 in).
The probe must be inserted into the thickest part of the food. Make sure the probe does not touch bone or the container.
If measuring the temperature of food that is not very thick, such as a hamburger patty or boneless chicken breast, the probe should be inserted through the side of the food so the entire sensing area is positioned through the centre of the food.
It is recommended to record cooking, storage (hot and cold) and reheating temperatures in a log book.
Time and temperature abuse is the most common causes of food poisoning.
The "Danger Zone" is between 4°C / 40°F and 60°C / 140°F. This is the optimal growth temperature for most pathogens.
Keep hot food hot (60°C/140°F or above). Ensure that any hot holding apparatus is capable of maintaining this temperature (O. Reg. 562, Sec. 33. 2 b).
Keep cold food cold (4°C/40°F or below). Ensure that all refrigeration units can keep foods at or below this temperature (O. Reg. 562, Sec. 33 2 a).
Move hazardous foods through the "Danger Zone" as quickly as possible during cooling and reheating.
Do not allow hazardous foods to be in the "Danger Zone" longer than two hours (total cumulative time).
Hazardous foods at room temperature for longer than two hours should be discarded.
Cross-contamination is the transfer of pathogens, chemicals or unwanted items onto food that may make it unsafe to eat.
Cross-contamination can occur in three ways:
Clean and sanitize all equipment after coming in contact with hazardous food (knives, cutting boards, tongs etc.).
Store cooked or ready to eat food on a shelf above raw food or in a separate refrigerator.
Store utensils in a sanitary manner to prevent contamination.
Label chemicals and pesticides and store them in a separate area away from food.
Practice good personal hygiene.
Wash your hands
Food handlers must wear clean clothing and change aprons as often as necessary (O. Reg. 562 Sec 65. 1 b,c).
Food handlers are not to handle food if they are ill with diarrhea and/or vomiting and should only return after they have been symptom-free for at least 24 hours or as directed by your physician/health care provider.
Food handlers must not handle food with bare hands if they have open cuts on their hands.
Aprons and uniforms are not to be used as hand towels as they may contaminate hands or food.
Food handlers must have trimmed nails and wear no jewellery when preparing food.
Food handlers must be aware of their personal habits such as biting nails, touching their face especially around the mouth, nose and eyes.
Food handlers must wear headgear that confines the hair (O. Reg 562 Sec. 67).
Employees must not smoke in the kitchen area (O. Reg 562 Sec. 65.1a).
Washrooms, toilets, lockers and change rooms must be kept clean, sanitary and in good repair at all times.
There must be a constant supply of hot and cold potable running water, liquid soap in a dispenser and paper towels or a hand dryer.
A garbage container must be provided.
Provide a sign clearly identifying the sex for which the washroom is intended (O. Reg. 562 sec. 68 (20)).
Handwashing basins are required by legislation.
They must be located in each food preparation area and easily accessible so employees can wash their hands conveniently.
They are to be used for handwashing only - not for dishwashing or food preparation.
They must be supplied with hot and cold running water, soap in a dispenser and paper towels.
Washroom basins are not a replacement for handwash basins.
All food service employees are required to wash their hands when returning to the kitchen. (O. Reg 562 Sec. 20.2c)
Always wash your hands:
O.Reg. 562 Sec. 65 1(e)
Follow these rules for the safe and appropriate use of gloves when handling food:
Clean: the removal of oil, grease, dirt and debris from surfaces using soap and water.
Sanitize: the removal of 99.9% of pathogenic microorganisms using very high temperature water or approved chemical sanitizers.
Utensils, multi-service articles, equipment and food contact surfaces must be cleaned and sanitized after each use.
O. Reg. 562 Sec. 75 (1)(a,b,c)
Sanitizer test strips are to be used to verify the concentration of the sanitizer.
Vinegar is not a sanitizer.
Contact time for sanitizers is based on manufacturer's recommendations.
Always follow the manufacturer's instructions when mixing solutions and allowing for contact time.
Use 2 mL (1/2 tsp) of bleach (liquid chlorine) for every 1 litre of water to make a disinfection solution of 100 mg/L (100 ppm).
Use these steps when washing utensils using a dishwasher:
Soak dishes based on manufacturer's contact time:
Soak dishes based on manufacturer's contact time:
O. Reg. 562 Sec. 82 (a)(b)
Store clean and sanitized utensils in a manner that protects them from potential contamination. For example, do not store utensils between pieces of equipment or between equipment and the wall as this may contaminate the utensil.
Never scoop food with a cup or bowl. Instead, use a utensil that has a handle in order to prevent contaminating food.
Regularly check utensils and storage containers for evidence of wear or damage. Damaged utensils may become a physical hazard if pieces end up in food.
When providing utensils for customer self-service, store them in a manner where the customer can grab the handle or have the utensils individually wrapped.
Clean floors using damp mops at least once daily
Keep walls, ceilings and light fixtures clean and in good repair
Remove dirt from under equipment, in corners and in hard-to-reach places
Store all supplies at least 15 cm (6 in) off the ground to allow for proper cleaning, to help reduce pest problems and to prevent cross-contamination
Keep equipment clean and in good repair
Clean and disinfect all tables, counters and work surfaces before and after food preparation or service
Routinely clean mechanical ventilation hoods, filters and vent pipes that remove heat, steam and odours
Wash and sanitize empty food bins and containers before refilling them
It is recommended to implement a cleaning schedule
HACCP is a food safety system which allows you to:
Hazards are pathogens and/or toxins that can grow or survive in food. Hazards could also include chemicals or physical objects in food.
Analysis is the process of examining the flow of food to identify the points that may cause food borne illness.
A step in the preparation of a food where any unsafe situation that may lead to foodborne illness is eliminated, prevented or controlled.
For example, a burger must be cooked to a minimum internal temperature of 71°C (160°F) to destroy pathogens, such as E.coli, that may cause serious illness.
1. Conduct Hazard Analysis
2. Determine Critical Control Points (CCP)
3. Establish Critical Limits
4. Monitor and Record CCPs
5. Corrective Action
1. The "Danger zone" is:
2. What is cross-contamination?
3. This bacteria is commonly found on food handlers skin, nose, and hair:
4. Washrooms must have the following items:
5. How do flies contaminate food?
6. Racks, skids and non-movable furniture should be 15cm (6in) off the floor to:
Food can be safely defrosted:
Use the defrosted/thawed item within two days.
Cooking temperatures to be reached for at least 15 seconds
Reheating temperatures to be reached within two hours for at least 15 seconds
|Product||Minimum Internal Temperature|
|Cooking Temperature||Reheating Temperature|
|Poultry (whole)||82°C / 180°F||74°C / 165°F|
|Poultry (pieces)||74°C / 165°F||74°C / 165°F|
|Poultry (ground)||74°C / 165°F||74°C / 165°F|
|Mixture of food containing poultry, egg, meat, fish or other hazardous foods||74°C / 165°F||74°C / 165°F|
|Pork and pork products||71°C / 160°F||71°C / 160°F|
|Ground beef||71°C / 160°F||71°C / 160°F|
|Fish||70°C / 158°F||70°C / 158°F|
Food should be cooled from 60°C (140°F) to 4°C (40°F) within four to six hours. It can take hours or even days for large quantities of food to cool to appropriate temperatures.
You can reduce cooling times by:
Proper hot holding
Proper cold holding
If transporting foods, ensure vehicles are clean and foods are held at proper hot or cold holding temperatures.
1. When cooking ground beef hamburgers, cook them until
3. A critical control point is:
For more information regarding food safety: